Guide to Choose the Right Knee Replacement Implant

Are you about to undergo knee replacement surgery? Then, you must know the right knee replacement implant. Of course, although it is your surgeon who will decide on the best knee replacement implant for you, based on your case, it is good to know the types of knee replacement implants used in knee replacement surgeries. Knowing the types of knee replacement impact can also help you make the right choice.

What is a Knee Replacement Implant?

A knee replacement is a surgical substitution of a knee joint, wherein the femur and tibia bone meet, with the help of an artificial joint or implant. So, in simple words, an implant actually enables you to make movements, which you used to with your natural knee.

When Do You Need a Knee Replacement Implant?

Whether you need a knee implant is something that doctors decide after comprehensive diagnosis of your case. However, in many cases, knee replacement implants are used in cases where the patient experiences constant and unbearable pain in the knee joint or if the knee functioning has deteriorated or become restrictive. Additionally, knee replacement implants may be required in the case of severe damage to the knee resulting from an accident, trauma or serious injury.

Types of Knee Replacement Implants

Knee implants have two components. One of them is attached to the thigh bone and the other one to the lower leg bone. Nevertheless, knee replacement implants can be categorized based on their purpose as total knee replacement and partial knee replacement implants. To understand these types, let’s look at the knee anatomy.

A human knee joint has three divisions or sections mentioned below.

  • Medial Compartment: This is the interior section of the knee.
  • Lateral Compartment: This is the outer section of the knee.
  • Patellofemoral Compartment: This is in the front and is situated between the knee cap and thighbone.

A total knee replacement involves the replacement of all these compartments. However, a partial knee, as the name implies, comprises replacing only a part or two. In case of total knee replacement surgery, all the three compartments are replaced with four artificial components namely, tibial component, femoral component, patellar component, and plastic spacer. Let’s look at each of these components.

  • Tibial Component: A soft metal platform that comes with a polyethylene insert, attached to the top of the resurfaced shin bone at the front part of the leg.
  • Femoral Component: Metal or ceramic element attached to the end of the resurfaced thighbone.
  • Patellar Component: Polyethylene dome-shaped part used for kneecap replacements.
  • Plastic Spacer: A flexible plastic part that fits between the femoral and tibial component. It enables the knee to bend and flex easily.

Now, let’s look at the type of knee implants.

The single radius knee is the most commonly used knee implant. It provides a high degree of extension and flexion for patients of various ages, genders and activity levels.

Other types include fixed bearing and mobile bearing. These two types are based on how the plastic insert locks into the tibial component. So, in fixed bearing implants, the plastic insert is locked into the metal tibial plate. In mobile bearing implants, the plastic insert within the tibial component can rotate in the tibial tray.

Material Used in Knee Implant

  • Cobalt-Chromium: Strong material used in the femoral component, on account of the higher extent of traction in the femoral part. But people with nickel allergy must avoid cobalt chromium. Instead, they may use a combination of ceramic and zirconium alloy.
  • Titanium-Cobalt: Soft elastic material conducive to the natural bone around the implant.

Visit Ranka Hospital for Consultation on Knee Replacement Surgery

While choosing the right knee replacement surgery, consult a surgeon. Surgeons diagnose your case thoroughly and depending on your condition and the type of replacement required, decide on the best knee replacement implant for your body. Ranka Hospital offers consultation, diagnoses and conducts knee replacement surgeries through experienced surgeons and the latest surgical infrastructure. The hospital chooses implants manufactured by reputed manufacturers for high longevity, efficiency and comfort.

For more details or to book an appointment with Ranka’s knee replacement experts, call 020 2426 1600.

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